How To Prevent Renal Stones
- Renal stones are also called as kidney stones.
- Renal stones are very common problem in most of the temperate climate.
- One of the most common cause considered to be is the less intake of water and hot climate.
Constituents of stone
- These stones consists of following chemical components:
- Calcium oxalate.
- Calcium phosphate.
- Uric acid.
- Mixture of magnesium ammonium phosphate.
- These substances crystalizes in organic matrix in kidney or urinary bladder.
- These substances are poorly soluble in aqueous (water) solution.
- Their solubility depends upon the pH of urine.
Formation of stones depends upon
- Urine flow which depends upon water intake.
- Excessive excretion of above chemicals excreted in urine.
- Absence of the substances that inhibit the stone formation.
- Calcium oxalate stone
- These are the most common stones and occurs world wide.
- These are more common in the tropical and subtropical countries.
- These are associated with concentrated urine or increased calcium oxalate excretion in the urine.
- Uric acid
- These are more common in the raised level of uric acid.
- Diet rich in proteins may lead to uric acid stone formation.
- These are common in people who take lot of fish in their diet.
Prevention of the various stones
Calcium Oxalate Stones
- Reducing sodium intake.
- Reduce animal protein, such as meat, eggs, and fish.
- Avoid taking calcium supplements with food.
- Avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and wheat bran.
Calcium Phosphate Stones
- Reducing sodium intake.
- Reducing animal protein.
- Avoid calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with food.
Uric Acid Stones
- These form in high protein diet.
- Excessive eating fish may lead to uric acid stone formation.
- Decrease the animal protein like Beef, lamb, goat , chicken.
- There is high concentration of uric acid in fish.
- Other factors
- Which leads to kidney stone formation include :
- Body weight.
- Fluid intake.
Prevention in the long run in patients once they have stone formation
- Diet is one of several factors that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation.
- Four major types of kidney stones are :
- calcium stones.
- Uric acid stones.
- Struvite stones.
- Cystine stones.
- Fluid intake is the main key to prevent the stone formation.
- People with history of stone formation should have enough water and fluids, so that they will have urine output of at least 2 liters per day.
- Sodium salt causes the kidneys to excrete more calcium into the urine.
- High concentrations of calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones.
- Reducing sodium intake is preferred to reducing calcium intake.
- Meats and other animal protein e.g. s eggs and fish contain purines, which break down into uric acid in the urine.
- Calcium from food does not increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium in the digestive tract binds to oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood.