Chapter 30: Glossary
A Convertase: It is an enzymatic activity, which converts a complement protein into its reactive form by cleavage.
Adjuvant: A compound capable of potentiating and immune response.
Agglutination: An antigen-antibody reaction where the antigen is in particulate form.
Alexine: It is the thermolabile non-specific factor that with sensitizer causes bacteriolysis.
Alleles: These are variants of a single genetic locus.
Allergens: Antigens that give rise to allergy.
Anaphylatoxins: Fragments of complement proteins e.g. C5a C3a & C4a. They serve to recruit fluid and inflammatory cells to sites of antigens.
ANCA: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody for the diagnosis of Wegner’s granulomatosis.
Anergy: It is the state of non-responsiveness to an antigen.
Apoptosis: It is a programmed cell death where cell activates an internal death program.
Ataxia-Telangiectasia: This is an abnormality of genes leading to immunodeficiency and may be due to T-lymphocytes. Ataxia appears when a child walks and after 5 years Telangiectasis appears.
Atopy: It is a condition of increased susceptibility to immediate hypersensitivity usually mediated by IgE-Ab.
Bruton’s Syndrome: There is antigen agammaglobulinemia.
Caseous Necrosis: The term comes to form the white cheesy appearance of central necrosis seen in the granuloma.
CD: Cluster of differentiation, these are monoclonal antibodies.
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: It is a defect in phagocytic cell function due to unknown causes. There is the impaired killing of ingested bacteria.
Cloning: The generation of millions of daughter cells from a single progenitor cell.
Crest Syndrome: It stands for calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, oesophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.
CT: Computerized Tomography.
Cytokines: These are proteins made by cells that affect the behavior of other cells. Cytokines produce by lymphocytes are called lymphokines or interleukin (IL).
Cytotoxin’s: These are proteins made by cytotoxic. T-cells that destroy the target cells e.g. these are perforins and granzyme.
Diapedesis: It is the movement of blood cells, particularly leukocytes, from blood across the blood vessel wall into a tissue.
DiGeorge Anomaly: This feature is due to the development during the twelfth week of gestation, third and fourth pharyngeal arches which normally give rise to the parathyroid gland and the thymus. So there is descent or abscess of the thymus.
Felty’s Syndrome: In rheumatoid arthritis patients if there is splenomegaly, neutropenia, and at a time, anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Gene Therapy: It is the correction of a genetic defect by the introduction of a normal gene into bone marrow or other cell types.
Granzyme: There is serine esterase found in the granules of Tc cell and NK cells.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Often preceded by a viral-like illness. The cause is unknown, but myelin and nerve-axon are destroyed. It is inflammatory peripheral polyneuropathy.
Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT): These are lymphoid tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, including the tonsils, Peyer’s patches, and intraepithelial lymphocytes.
Immunity: This is the ability to resist infection.
Immunization: It is the deliberate provocation of an adaptive immune response to the introduction of an antigen.
Immunobiology: It is the study of the biological basis for host defense against infection.
Immunology: It is the study of all aspects of host defense against infection and of adverse consequences of the immune response.
Lambert-Eaten Syndrome: It is characterized by proximal muscle weakness, increased muscle strength during isometric contraction (post-tetanic potentiation), loss of tendon reflexes, and autonomic dysfunction.
LFA-1, LFA-3-Lymphocytes-Function Associated Antigen: These are members of the supergene family of immunoglobulins.
Motor Neuron Disease (MND): A progressive degenerative disease of unknown etiology affecting upper and lower motor neurons.
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Image.
Nephritic Renal Disease: < 3G proteinuria/24 hours.
Nephrotic Renal Disease: > 3G proteinuria/24 hours.
Northern Blot: This technique is preferentially utilized to determine gene expression levels by quantifying mRNA levels.
Oncogene: These are genes involved in regulating cell growth. When these genes are defective in structure or expression, they can cause the cells to grow continuously to form a tumor.
Patch Testing: Where potential contact sensitizer is placed in contact with the skin on the back for 48 hours.
Pathology: This is the scientific study of disease.
Pemphigus: This is a group of diseases with blister formation within the epidermis.
Perforin: It is a protein that can polymerize to form pores in the membrane are important for killing mechanism in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These are produced by Tc cells and NK cells and strike the cells when it contacts specific target cells.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): PCR allows the amplification of specific sequences of DNA or RNA, thus making possible the identification and quantification of infectious agents of mRNA.
RAST: Radioallergosorbent test, this detects serum levels of allergen-specific IgE.
Reiter’s Syndrome: Diagnostic triad of urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis define as a syndrome.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP): It provides direct analysis of DNA for polymorphism.
Schirmer Test: In which the strip of filter paper (0.5 x 3.5cm) is inserted under the eyelid for 5 minutes. A positive test is one in which less than 10mm of the paper has been soaked by tears, used for the diagnosis of Sjogren’s disease.
Selectin: These are family of cell-surface adhesion molecules of leukocytes and endothelial cells that bind to sugar moieties on specific glycoproteins with mucin-like features.
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: There is impaired both B & T-lymphocytes immunity.
Southern Blot: This technique is used to detect the presence of a DNA sequence in total isolated DNA.
Split Liver: This is the use of one liver for two recipients.
Stiffman Syndrome: It is characterized by symptoms of tightness, and stiffness, with slowly progressive axial and abdominal wall rigidity.
Still’s Disease: Systemic manifestations like fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, leucocytosis, and anemia.
Th1: This is an alternative name for inflammatory CD4+ T-cells.
Th2: This is an alternative name for helper CD4+ T-cells.
Vitiligo: Complete loss of skin pigment (depigmentation) in a patchy distribution.
Western Blot: It is a technique for detecting proteins in a mixture using labeled antibodies after the proteins have been separated usually by gel electrophoresis transferred by blotting to nitrocellulose.
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: This is a rare x-linked immunodeficiency is characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia; with abnormal small platelets, and recurrent pyogenic and opportunistic infections caused by a combination of B & T lymphocytes immune deficiency.
|Total Immunoglobulin||Normal Values|
|IgG||Adult = 565—1765mg/dl.|
|IgA||> 6 years = 650—1600mg/dl|
|IgM||Adult = 40—350mg/dl|
|IgD||> 12 years = 50—300mg/dl|
Adult = <8—ng/dl
Newborn = <100—ng/dl
Adult = 3— IU/Iml