Acute phase protein (Acute Phase Reactants)
- Acute phase protein is raised in the inflammatory conditions.
- There may be increased in acute phase proteins called positive acute phase protein.
- In the case of a decrease in the acute phase, protein is called negative phase protein.
- The acute phase proteins are protein whose concentration increases in the plasma and after the disease episode over then it decreases and may become normal
Fibrinogen (Factor 1)
- The patient blood is needed to prepare plasma.
- The sample is stable for 8 hours at room temperature.
- Can be stored for several months at -20 °C.
- For the evaluation of bleeding disorder.
- If there is excessive bruising.
- In case of bleeding from the gums and nose.
- In case of Bleeding in the GIT and blood in the stool.
- In case of blood in the urine.
- If there is rupture of the spleen.
- Avoid clot formation.
- Avoid collecting the blood from the heparinized blood vessel.
- Avoid contamination with tissue which contains tissue thromboplastin.
- Avoid contamination with heparin.
- This is beta-globulin and is usually absent from the serum.
- It is a fibrillary group of a protein.
- This consists of three pairs of polypeptide chains.
- This is synthesized in the liver.
- When fibrinogen is transfused:
- 50% disappears in 48 hours.
- 75% disappears in 6 days.
- Half-life is 3.5 to 4 days.
- This is an essential protein for blood clot formation.
- In the process of clotting, all the fibrinogen in the plasma is converted to fibrin.
- Now the serum will be laking fibrinogen.
- The fibrinogen has a major effect on the RBCs sedimentation rate by coating the cells.
- This allows the cells to settle (sediment) faster.
- So increased fibrinogen indicate raised ESR.
- Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC):
- This is raised by the inflammation or tissue injury.
- Snake venom leads to depletion of fibrinogen.
- An elevated level may be seen in:
- Acute infections.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Patients with malignancies.
- Inflammatory conditions like Rheumatoid arthritis and Glomerulonephritis.
- In the case of traumatic injury.
- Patient with a stroke.
- In pregnancy.
- Person smoking cigarettes.
- Patients with peripheral artery disease.
- This is raised in acute and chronic inflammation.
- Newborn = 125 to 300 mg/dL
- Adult = 200 to 400 mg/dL
- Critical value = <100 mg/dL
The increased level is seen in:
- In trauma.
- In coronary heart disease.
- Acute inflammatory condition.
- In cigarettes smoking.
- Maybe increased in thrombosis.
The decreased level is seen in:
- In liver diseases.
- Congenital deficiency.
- In DIC (disseminated coagulopathy).
- In fibrinolysis.
- This is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
- The structure of fibrinogen is functionally defective.
- There may be bleeding episodes, bruise and poor healing of the wound.
- This leads to relatively mild hemorrhage.
- Few of these may have the tendency for thrombosis.
- Critical value is <60 mg/dL.
Value for the layman:
- When there is a history of bleeding or bruises.
- If the patient has epistaxis.
Possible References Used
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