Acute phase protein (Acute Phase Reactants)
- Acute phase protein is raised in the inflammatory conditions.
- There may be increased in acute phase proteins called positive acute phase protein.
- In the case of a decrease in the acute phase, protein is called negative phase protein.
- The acute phase proteins are protein whose concentration increases in the plasma and after the disease episode over then it decreases and may become normal
- The patient blood is needed to prepare serum.
- Try to perform the analysis on the fresh sample.
- Can store at 4 °C for <72 hours.
- When stored at -20 °C, is stable for 6 months.
- Avoid hemolysis because the RBC contains iron.
- Avoid lipemic serum.
- Differential diagnosis of anemia and monitoring of treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
- This is major beta-globulin (glycoprotein). This iron-carrying protein.
- The transferrin transport the Ferric ion (Fe+++) and normally there is 20 to 30% saturation and it increases in the iron deficiency anemia.
- One molecule of transferrin binds two ions of iron.
- Ferrous ions bind more rapidly than ferric ions.
- It changes in color from colorless to pink.
- The liver synthesizes the transferrin and this will binds the iron.
- This is synthesized in the liver and depends on its demands in anemia.
- This is decreased in acute inflammation and raised in a chronic condition.
- This act as an acute phase protein.
- Transferrin can be lost in the urine because of its small molecular size.
- More loss in severe proteinuria.
- CSF also contains a small amount of transferrin.
- Its function in the CSF is not known.
- This can be used as a marker in case of CSF leakage.
- RBC has a receptor for the transferrin. These receptors also present in the lymphocytes.
- Transferrin level helps:
- In the case of iron deficiency anemia where transferrin level is increased.
- There is a low level of transferrin in the case of malignancy and inflammation.
- Functions of Transferrin:
- This transport iron.
- It regulates the absorption of iron.
- It protects against toxic effects of iron.
- o to 4 days = 130 to 275 mg/dL
- 3 months to 16 years = 203 to 360 mg/dL
- 16 to 60 years =
- male = 215 to 365 mg/dL
- female = 250 to 380 mg/dL
- 60 to 90 years = 190 to 375 mg/dL
- >90 years = 186 to 347 mg/dL
- Another source
- Male = 215 to 365 mg/dL
- Female = 250 to 380 mg/dL
- Newborn = 130 to 275 mg/dL
- Child = 203 to 360 mg/dL
- Transferrin saturation:
- male = 20% to 50%.
- Female = 15% to 50%
Transferrin level is increased in:
- Iron deficiency anemia.
- In pregnancy.
- Use of oral contraceptives.
Transferrin level is decreased in:
- In protein malnutrition.
- In iron overload diseases.
- In acute and chronic diseases.
- The absence of the transferrin is seen in the genetic disorder called Atransferrinemia.
- It is characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis.
- Hemosiderosis is seen in the liver and heart.
Value for the layman:
- Transferrin is advised when the patient has anemia (decreased hemoglobin).
Possible References Used
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