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Acute phase protein (Acute Phase Reactants)




  1. Avoid hemolyzed or lipemic serum.
  2. Ceruloplasmin is affected by infection and liver function.
  3. Birth control pills increase ceruloplasmin and pregnancy.


  1. This is done to diagnose Willson's disease.
  2. To diagnose an accumulation of copper in the liver, eye, and other organs.


  1. This is a major copper-carrying protein in the blood.

  1. Ceruloplasmin is  α2- globulin, and glycoprotein (7.5% carbohydrate) which is made by the liver.
  2. Ceruloplasmin which contains 95%of the total copper and gives it a blue color.
    1. 95% of the copper is bound to Ceruloplasmin.   
    2. Its molecular mass is 134,000.


  1. This is an acute phase protein and it has enzymatic activity (peroxidase activity).


Increased level of ceruloplasmin is seen in:

  1. The latter half of the pregnancy.
  2. Acute and chronic infection.
  3. In myocardial infarction.
  4. Thyrotoxicosis.
  5. Leukemia and cancers.
  6. In liver cirrhosis.

Wilson' disease

  1. This is rarely inherited autosomal recessive abnormality.
  2. Age: This is seen in young adult, adolescent, and both sexes.
  3. Sign and symptom:
    1. There is increasing rigidity.
    2. The patient will have spasticity.
    3. This patient develops difficulty in swallowing and speaking.
  4. Pathophysiology: All the tissues will have a high content of the copper.
    1. There is especially more copper in the liver and brain.
    2. In liver copper concentration is 5 to 30 times more than normal tissues.
    3. Plasma ceruloplasmin level is low because of the copper deposition in the liver.
    4. Most of the patients develop cirrhosis.

  1. Diagnosis: There is decreased ceruloplasmin.
    1. Increased urine copper.


Possible References Used

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