Acute phase protein (Acute Phase Reactants)
- Acute phase protein is raised in the inflammatory conditions.
- When there is increased in a protein called positive acute phase protein.
- In the case of a decrease in the acute phase protein, is called negative phase protein.
- The acute phase proteins (positive) are protein whose concentration increases in the plasma and after the disease episode is over then it decreases and may become normal.
Alpha-1–antitrypsin (AAT, α1-antitrypsin)
- It is done in the serum of the patient (collect 5 to 10 ml of blood).
- Serum electrophoresis may be advised.
- In case of family history of emphysema.
- Advised in children with cirrhosis.
- Advised of acute inflammation, infection or malignancy (non-specific test).
- This is a naturally occurring protease inhibitor.
- This is synthesized and catabolized in the liver.
- This important inhibitor of neutrophils elastase which is produced in the process of phagocytosis by these cells.
- This enzyme reacts with elastin in the tracheobronchial tree and vascular endothelium.
- This enzyme prevents the loss of elastic tissue function.
- Its deficiency leads to premature emphysema.
- Its concentration is increased much fold in acute inflammation.
- Cigarette smoke and volatile irritants lead to the release of proteolytic enzymes from the white blood cells.
- This is a disease called AAT deficiency, is an inherited condition.
- This disease can transfer from parents to children.
- ATT is a protein which protects the lung. It is formed in the liver.
- Its deficiency leads to:
- There is a tiredness.
- There is weight loss.
- Repeated lung infections.
- There is shortness of breath and wheezing.
- There may be a vision problem.
- There may be tachycardia on standing.
- This is increased in acute and chronic inflammation.
- Newborn = 145 to 270 mg/dL.
- Adult = 78 to 200 mg/dL.
- Adult > 60 years = 115 to 200 mg/dL.
- Serum electrophoresis showed 90% of ATT in the α1-globulin.
- Another source
- 85 to 213 mg/dL (0.85 to 2.13 g/L).
- Another source
- 100 to 200 mg/dL (18.4 to 36.8 µmol/L) by nephelometry.
Test value for the layman:
- In the case of patients with emphysema.
- In children, if they develop cirrhosis or liver diseases.
Possible References Used
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